Before the time of Buddha, the middle part of Terai (flat land) in Nepal was ruled by Mithila Kings. This kingdom spread from river Tista from the east of Nepal to river Narayani as its west end, Chure hills in the north to mid of Bihar in India.
Bara lies in this part of the historical area. Bara is a district and currently lies in State 2 of Nepal.
It is believed that the word Bara originated from 12 goddesses that have been protecting the region from 12 different locations. 12 (Twelve) is pronounced “barah” in Nepali and the local language Bhojpuri, hence the word “Bara”. The 12 places (also called “Gadhi”), the goddesses have been residing are:
1)Nijgadh, 2)Tamagadhi, 3)Bariyarpur Gadhi, 4)Simraoungadh, 5)Ramgadhi (currently in Bihar, India), 6)Newalpurgadhi, 7)Parsa Gadhi, 8)Narainiyagadhi, 9)Jeetpurgadhi, 10)Alaugadhi, 11)Jamunigadhi, 12)Tiyargadhi.
The Mithila kingdom was later attacked by the “Khas” kings of Jumla and the kingdom was completely destroyed. During 11th century the place saw dawn of Doy Kings, who moved the capital to Simraungadh and the Kingdom again started flourishing.
This region was never ruled by foreign invaders. Shiva Singh was the most famous Doy king, who ruled over all of Mithila territory expanded his kingdom in the west from Makwanpur & Palpa to Gorakhpur. During 13th century, Samsudin chief general of Badshah Gayasudin Balwan from Delhi completely destroyed Simraungadh. Hari Singh Dev was the last Doy king.Â
King Hari Singh fled to Bhaktapur as his son was married to a Malla princess of Bhaktapur. Later all the small kingdoms of Nepal were unified by King Prithvi Narayan Shah and a Shah dynasty was established. During this period, army of British East India Company attacked Nepal numerous times. One battle was fought at Parwanipur-Jeetpur area of Bara jointly by the Nepal army and the local citizens with the British East India Company and British East India Company lost the battle. Later the citizens of Bara were awarded by the King Prithvi Narayan Shah.
Later a Rana regime was started in Nepal by Jung Bahadur Rana with the help of the British in India. He made the Shah king of Nepal as a puppet king. One of the Shah Kings, Shree Panch Rajendra Bir Bikram Shah tried to overthrow Prime Minister Jung Bahadur Rana. The king was staying in a camp in Barewa, Kalaiya. There was a battle between the Rana army and the local people of Kalaiya, who supported the King. Almost all the local people who came to fight for the king died, but they were able to safely send the King to India at that time.
Bara has been a historical district with so many powerful kings ruling the area and with so many historical events. Now the district is one of the most agriculturally productive and industrialized districts of Nepal.